The scalp is the portion of skin that covers the skull; it consists of three different overlapping layers. The deepest layer is the one that is in direct contact with the internal organs of the body and is called hypoderm: it is a heat insulator; it absorbs the shocks and is a reserve of energy.

The intermediate layer is the derma, that consists of a kind of gelatin called collagen, which contains all the substances that determine the elasticity and tone of the scalp. Physiologically the derma is very important because at this level there are both the peripheral terminations of our nervous system and the blood that is oxygenated and enriched with the necessary nutrients to keep the hair and skin always strong and vital. Finally the derma contains the sebaceous and sudoriparous glands, the secretions of which are the hydrolipid film.

The last layer is the epidermis: the place where the cells are reproduced, renewed and where they are eliminated at the horny layer level.

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